1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch

Current State of the OCP Text

All of the extant Greek and Latin evidence for 1 Enoch is represented here. The Aramaic fragments are included through chapter 8. One Ethiopic manuscript (p) is now included for the "Book of the Watchers" (chapters 1-36) and the "Parables." The Syriac and Coptic fragments still await encoding. For print editions of the remaining evidence not included here, see the bibliography below. Note that proofreading of the Aramaic and Greek text published here is still ongoing, and we have so far had to correct several errors in the transcription of the Qumran Aramaic fragments (see below). Use those fragments with caution until further notice. The Ethiopic text, though, it reliable.

Current State of the Ethiopic Text

The present Ethiopic text is based on Rylands Ethiopic Manuscript 23, which has also been reproduced in Knibb’s edition (M.A. Knibb, 1978). Once the critical evaluation of all the variants attested in Knibb’s edition is completed, the base text will be changed accordingly. Rylands Manuscript 23 [abbreviated “Ryl.” in (M.A. Knibb, 1978), “p” in (R.H. Charles, 1906)] is held by the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, UK. It belongs to the family referred to by the sigla “Eth. II” (J.P.G. Flemming, 1902) or β (R.H. Charles, 1906). It was probably copied in the 17th (R.H. Charles, 1906, xix) or 18th century (M.A. Knibb, 1978, 28). Some of the most common orthographical errors found in late Ge’ez manuscripts, such as the confusion of the consonants , , and , and ዐ, ጸ and ፀ, of long and short “a” after the gutturals (especially ዓ instead of ዐ and ኃ instead of ኀ) are also attested in this manuscript, though with varying frequency. They have been corrected according to the original spelling of the roots as attested in Dillmann’s Lexicon (A. Dillmann, 1865) and according to the grammatical conventions established by Dillmann in his grammar (A. Dillmann, 1907). The text of the Book of the Watchers and the Book of Parables has been transcribed so far but the remaining three booklets of the collection (Book of Luminaries, Book of Dream Visions, Epistle of Enoch) will also soon be available.

Manuscripts

Ethiopic Witnesses

MS Label Full Name Print Edition
p Rylands Manuscript 23 M. Knibb, The Ethiopic book of Enoch : A New Edition in the Light of the Aramaic Dead Sea Fragments. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.

Greek Witnesses

MS Label Full Name Print Edition
7QEnoch 7QpapEn gr (7Q4, 8, 11-14) M. Baillet, J. T. Milik, and R. de Vaux, Les "petites grottes" de Qumrân (DJD III; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), 144-145, pl. XXX.
POxy2069 Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 2069 P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri XVII (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1927), 6-8. Reprinted in Denis, Fragmenta, 233-34.
CB185 Chester Beatty 185 C. Bonner and H. C. Youtie, The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek (SD 8; London/Philadelphia, 1937). Reprinted (and confirmed by autopsy) by M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (PVTG 3; Leiden: Brill, 1970).
V1809 Città del Vaticano, Bibl. Apost. Vatic., vatic. gr.1809, f. 216v J. Gildemeister, "Ein Fragment des griechischen henoch," Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 9 (1855): 621-24. Reprinted in M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (PVTG 3; Leiden: Brill, 1970).
Gizeh Cairo Papyrus 10759 | Codex Panopolitanus | Codex Gizeh | Akhmim fragements R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912), 273-304; M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (PVTG 3; Leiden: Brill, 1970).
Gizeh2 duplicate section of Cairo Papyrus 10759 | Codex Panopolitanus | Codex Gizeh | Akhmim fragements R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912), 273-304; M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (PVTG 3; Leiden: Brill, 1970).
Syncellus apud Georgius Syncellus, Chronographia G. Dindorf, Georgius Syncellus et Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus. (Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae 20-21; Bonn, 1829). Reprinted in R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912), 273-304; M. Black, ed., Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (PVTG 3; Leiden: Brill, 1970).
Jude Jude 14-15  

Aramaic Witnesses

4Q201 4QEnoch a ar A. Lukaszewski, "Chrestomathy" in "The Value of Qumran Aramaic for Addressing the New Testament Aramaic Problem" (Ph.D. diss., University of Saint Andrews, 2004). Used by permission. See also J. T. Milik, with the collaboration of M. Black, The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). (For a list of disagreements between Lukaszewski and Milik, see the "Disagreements" section below.)
4Q202 4QEnoch b ar
4Q204 4QEnoch c ar
4Q205 4QEnoch d ar
4Q206 4QEnoch e ar
4Q207 4QEnoch f ar
4Q208 4QEnastr a ar
4Q209 4QEnastr b ar
4Q210 4QEnastr c ar
4Q211 4QEnastr d ar
4Q212 4QEn g ar
4Q247 4QApocalypse of Weeks?

Latin Witnesses

Tertullian 1En 99 apud Tertullian, De idolatria 4,3.22-38. A. Reifferscheid and G. Wissowa, eds., Quinti Septimi Florentis Tertulliani Opera, Pars 1 (Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 20; Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1890), 33. Reprinted by J. T. Milik, with the collaboration of M. Black, The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 79. See also J. H. Waszink and J. C. M. van Winden, Tertullianus: De idolatria: Critical Text, Translation and Commentary (Supplements to Vigilae christianae 1; Leiden/New York: Brill, 1987), 28.
BL Brit. Libr., Ref. 5 E XII, fol. 79v-80r M. R. James, Apocrypha Ancedota (T&S 2.3; Cambridge, 1893), 146-150, 186.

Bibliography

Print Editions

Aramaic

The primary print editions of the Qumran Aramaic fragments are:

Ethiopic

Greek

Print sources for individual witnesses are listed above. The primary print publications since 1900 which have compiled the Greek evidence are:

Latin

Print sources for individual witnesses are listed above. See also:

Syriac

The Syriac fragment of 1 Enoch 6:1-7 is printed in:

Coptic

The Antinoë Coptic fragment, covering 1En 93:3–8, is printed in:

For further bibliography see DiTommaso, Bibliography, 355-430.

Corrections

Corrections to Lukaszewski's Aramaic Text

The following errors have been found to date in Lukaszewski's transcription of the Qumran Aramaic fragments. Each of these has been corrected in the OCP edition.

4Q201 (4QEna) col. 2, line 1 (2:1) At the opening of this line Lukaszewski's transcription is missing a square bracket to define the beginning of the first reconstructed section. His transcription reads וׄלׄא֯ …בס]ר֯כׄן. This should undoubtedly be amended to read וׄלׄא֯ […בס]ר֯כׄן.
col. 2, line 1 (2:2) Mid-way through line 1 Lukaszewski offers the non-sensical transcription ‏…]לאחר]נהׄ It would seem that an extra square bracket has been inserted and that Lukaszewski's intent is represented by the corrected reading ‏…לאחר]נהׄ
4Q204 (4QEnc) col. 1, line 1 (1:9) In line 16 Lukaszewski's transcription reads ‏. . .עוב[די ב]שרא על This is very different from Milik's transcription of this line, which reads ‏[ . . . ב]שרא על עובד[י . . .] An examination of Milik's photograph of the fragment (plate IX) confirms that Lukaszewski's transcription must be an error.
In line 17 Lukaszewski's transcription does not record the gap which precedes the surviving characters.

Disagreements between Lukaszewski and Milik

4Q201 (4QEna) col. 1, line 3 (1:2) Milik and Lukaszewski agree here that the final extant characters of the line are ‏כלה. Where Milik reads this as a complete word, however, Lukaszewski takes it as part of a longer word which (reconstructed) would read ‏כלה[ון.
col. 1, line 5 (1:3) At the end of the legible text in line 5, Milik reads a partially legible מ and reconstructs the word ‏מ[דורה. Lukaszewski does not read the מ which forms the basis for this reconstruction.
col. 1, line 6 (1:4) At the end of the legible text in line 6 Lukaszewski reads the letters גבור and reconstructs the word to read גבור[תה. Milik, however, reads the letters as גברו (inverting the waw and resh) and so reconstructs the word as גברו[תה. The poor preservation of the final letter in this line (which is missing the left end of the stroke) makes it difficult on a cursory reading to judge which is correct.
col. 1, line 7 (1:5) At the beginning of line 7 (frag. a) Milik reads a partially legible ת which he takes to be the end of the word קצו]ת. Lukaszewski agrees with this reconstruction, but does not read the ת at all.
col. 1, line 8 (1:5) At the end of line 7 (frag. b) Milik reads the letters ויזו. Lukaszewski only reads the initial ו as surviving in any legible form. Both, however, agree in reconstructing the word as ויזועון.
col. 2, line 1 (2:1) In line 1 Milik reads the word בסרכן and treats the letters as all (partially) visible. Lukaszewski's transcription treats the initial letters בס as completely illegible and reconstructed.
col. 2, line 2 (2:2) Here Milik reads לא]חרנה. Lukaszewski takes the letters חר as also being illegible and entirely reconstructed.
col. 2, line 4 (2:3) Milik and Lukaszewski agree that the second word of this line should be מטרה. Where Milik transcribes all of the letters as at least partially legible, however, Lukaszewski treats the initial מט as completely missing and reconstructed.
col. 2, line 5 (3:1) After the word מן at the opening of line 5, Milik reads three more words as at least partially legible: ארבעת עסר עילני[ן. Lukaszewski does not transcribe any of these letters.
col. 2, line 5 (3:1) Where Milik transcribes the word דעליהן, Lukaszewski omits the ד entirely and treats the ע as a reconstructed letter.
col. 2, line 6 (3:1) Where Milik reads the letters in the word דתרתין as all being partially visible, Lukaszewski transcribes the initial ד as a reconstruction.
col. 2, line 6 (3:1) Lukaszewski transcribes the word שנין as entirely reconstructed, while Milik transcribes the same letters as at least partially visible.
col. 2, line 7 (4:1) Milik treats the words טלל ומסתרין as at least partially visible, while Lukaszewski reads all but the final letters ין as reconstructed.
col. 2, line 8 (4:1) Lukaszewski treats the words ועל כפיה as entirely reconstructed, while Milik reads ו[ע]ל [כפ]יה..
col. 2, line 8 (4:1) Milik transcribes the word עפרה as legible, while Lukaszewski transcribes the letter פ as a reconstruction.

The text of the Greek and Latin witnesses to 1 Enoch transcribed in the OCP is in the public domain. The text of the Aramaic fragments is in the public domain except for any and all reconstructions (text within square brackets), which are used here by permission of A. Lukaszewski and may not be re-used or reproduced without his express consent. Similarly, the text of Ethiopic manuscript P is in the public domain, but the corrections made by Bertalotto are not. Before using this or other OCP texts for another purpose, please click "Copyright" under "Help and Information" above to read the policy on re-use and re-publication.